PhD 2009-2012
PDRA 2012-2013
Now at National Institute of Standards and Technology

PDRA Engineered bulk heterojunction inorganic:organic hybrid photovoltaics

Dr Martyn McLachlan
Start: October 2012
Sponsor: Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC)

PhD Solution Based Approaches for Nanostructured Hybrid Photovoltaics 
Supervisors: Dr Martyn McLachlan and Dr Mary Ryan
Sponsor: Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC)
End: September 2012

Jon relaxing!
The incorporation of n-type metal oxides in organic photovoltaics (OPV) architectures has recently been of interest to improve stability, performance and cost of these devices. In particular hybrid devices, constructed solely from photoactive polymer and inorganic provide a simple system for the study of the interaction between these dissimilar materials. In this research, the inorganic component used is ZnO for it's excellent optoelectronic properties and numerous nanostructures. To date, our work has focused on two topics; tailoring of ZnO nanorod arrays and methods to fill these structures. Concerning the former, we have shown control of growth and alignment of nanorod arrays by the addition of KCl to hydrothermal baths. Crucially this method allows the tailoring of nanostructures in aqueous solutions at low temperatures (< 100˚C). On the latter topic, various solution and solid state methods have been examined for their efficacy in filling these nanostructures and in obtaining desired polymer morphologies; in line with increasing charge mobility in the polymer and towards higher cell performance. This project contributes to understanding on OPV devices as well as developing parallel projects; for example, hybrid light emitting diodes.


J. B. Franklin, J. B. Gilchrist, J. M. Downing, K.A. Roy and M. A. McLachlan Transparent Conducting Oxide Top Contacts for Organic Electronics, Journal of Materials Chemistry C, (2013) DOI:10.1039/C3TC31296H
J. M. Downing, M. P. Ryan & M. A. McLachlan, Hydrothermal Growth of ZnO Nanorods: The Role of KCl in Controlling Rod Morphology, Thin Solid Films, In Press. DOI: 10.1016/j.tsf.2013.04.131
J. B. Franklin, J. M. Downing, F. Giuliani, M.P. Ryan & M. A. McLachlan. Building on Soft Foundations – New Possibilities for Controlling Hybrid Photovoltaic Architectures. Advanced Energy Materials. (2012), In Press.
J.M. Downing, M. P. Ryan, N. Stingelin, & M. A. McLachlan. Solution Processed Hybrid Photovoltaics - The Preparation of a Standard ZnO Template. Journal of Photonics for Energy. (2011),(1):011117.

J. Downing, M. P. Ryan and M. A. McLachlan, ‘Seeded growth of ZnO nanorods for Photovoltaic Applications’, Symposium W: Nanowire – Growth and Device Assembly for Novel Applications, MRS Fall ’10, Boston USA, (poster presentation).
J. Downing, M. P. Ryan, N. Stingelin and M. A. McLachlan, ‘ZnO:P3HT heterostructures- the influence of processing on device performance’, Symposium E: Molecular and Hybrid Materials for Electronics and Photonics, MRS Fall ’10, Boston USA, (poster presentation).